2: Experimental results can be misconstrued due to the way the experiment is set up. Consider the vast majority of experiments on
dilute gases. Herein, closed systems are used to contain the dilute gases. What scientists have forgotten to ask is this. How does
this affect our results? It turns out that the fact that dilute gas molecules do interact with the walls more often than with each
other is part of the reason that certain experimental results occur and that traditional thermodynamics is written the way it is.
Interestingly if we remove the walls then closed systems becomes open one. At which point the ideal gas law, Avogadro’s hypothesis, kinetic theory, Maxwell’s velocities etc. etc. all somewhat lose their validity. (See my blogs on “walls” and “kinetic theory” and my new kinetic theory). In part this explains why traditional thermodynamics does not apply to cosmology. I.e. results from experiments on gases in closed systems may be limited to closed systems. This is not to say that once we open a closed system of gas, that everything changes at that instant. Rather over time, once the walls are removed then gas molecules will collide with other gas molecules exchanging both their energies and momentums. And as this process occurs, the dynamics of the gases will slowly be altered.
The above is really an elaboration of experiments on high density gases wherein the gases will interact with each other more often than with the closed system’s walls. Herein the ideal gas law, Avogadro’s hypothesis, kinetic theory, Maxwell’s velocities etc. also all no longer apply.
Rule 3: When seeking an empirical result, or trying to explain an empirical result, do not allow your pet theories to interfere with your logic. Doing so may blind you of reality. Or even cause you to adhere to circular logic, something our 19th and early 20th century greats certainly did concerning entropy, the second law and lost work. And yes current thermodynamic theory is riddled with circular results based upon circular self-serving thought processes.
This website is now dedicated to elaborating upon why traditional thermodynamics is a complication of the simple, and how to then begin the discussion of how we can improve upon it. Plus the hope of selling a copy or two of my book. A new revised edition should hopefully be out in 2019. First book 2015, second 2018 see books also revisions are given (books) .
The quote that will always egg me on, and hopefully will be egg in the face to Eddington’s reputation: "The law that entropy always increases, holds, I think, the supreme position among the laws of Nature. If someone points out to you that your pet theory of the universe is in disagreement with Maxwell's equations — then so much the worse for Maxwell's equations. If it is found to be contradicted by observation — well, these experimentalists do bungle things sometimes. But if your theory is found to be against the second law of thermodynamics I can give you no hope; there is nothing for it but to collapse in deepest humiliation